Expanding knowledge about the crucial roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human diseases has led to the idea that miRNAs may be novel, promising therapeutic targets against various pathological conditions. The recent success of a human clinical trial using anti-miR-122 oligonucleotides against chronic hepatitis C virus has paved the way for this approach. In this review, we summarize briefly the current status of clinical trials of miRNA-targeting therapy and several representative preclinical trials against hepato-gastrointestinal carcinoma. In addition, we describe the currently available technologies for modification and delivery of oligonucleotides, which are essential in providing efficient, specific and safe approaches to targeting miRNAs.
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